House style requirements and document preparation for accepted proposals

Performance Research Style Requirements and Document Preparation

  1. General format
  2. Notes and references
  3. Required formats for publication details
  4. Images and captions
  5. Quotations
  6. Numbers
  7. Spelling
  8. Treatment of titles and names
  9. Hyphens, en dashes and em dashes
  10. Gender, ethnicity and culturally specific references
  11. Antecedence
  12. Missed chances for clarity
  13. Artist pages

1. General format

1.1 Please submit your manuscript electronically in ragged-right, 12-point, 1.5-spaced Arial font.

1.2 Send your work simply and clearly. Please do not lay out your article; the process of importing your text into the page layout program removes any special formatting you painstakingly create. Artist pages may be an exception.

1.3 Avoid hard returns, except after paragraphs, before and after extracts and before and after subheadings.

1.4 Subheadings should be consistent and flush left, with one space above and below. Normally do not put subheads in italics.

1.5 Indicate all italics with underlined roman. This must be consistent throughout your manuscript. The typesetter needs this coding in order to set genuine italic font; on-screen italics are unreliable.

1.6 Avoid extensive use of italics for emphasis. Please keep capitalization to a minimum. In general, avoid boldface.

1.7 Do not use the serial comma (also known as the Oxford comma). For example, in the series ‘this, that and the other’, there is no comma before ‘and’.

1.8 If there are notes, references or captions, please put them in the same document and in the same 12-point, 1.5-spaced format as the body of the text. In the electronic file you submit to PR, please do not use automatic footnote or end-note functions: some computer programs create notes in a separate, linked location that can get lost in transmission or trigger complex formatting problems or elude word counts. Instead, submit all the elements on the same level in a single document: article, notes, references, captions.

2. Notes and references

2.1 Notes are not the place for publication details. Publication details belong in the references list. Treat notes like the main body of the article: if in a note you refer to a source, cite it as you would in the main body and include that source in the list of references.

2.2 Large numbers of notes or extraordinarily long notes can put a strain on the journal’s design.

2.3 In the list of notes following your article, number each note in normal roman font, not superscript. Do not put a full point after the numeral; just leave one space between numeral and the text of the note.

2.4 Position notes and citations in the text where they are clear but will not unduly disrupt the reading.

She calls for ‘light-footed community’ and the integration of university into commonweal (Hertford 2003: 48). The citation works better at the end of this short sentence than immediately after the quoted phrase.

The sixteen signatories gave moral force to the proposal.[{note}]1 The note naming them does not have to go directly on ‘signatories’.

NB: As in these examples, a note goes outside the comma or full point, with no space (the typesetter ultimately removes the coding, leaving the numeral in correct position), whereas a citation is usually included within the punctuation, using normal spacing. In your text please code your notes like this[{note}]1 so the typesetter can easily find them: with no extra spaces and with the numeral outside the coding in normal font, not superscript.

2.5 Sources should be cited within your text and notes using the Harvard reference system, which gives the name of the author, the date of publication and (for quoted material) the page number(s) as a key to the full publication details set out in the list of references.

2.6 Your list of references is not a bibliography. It should include only the sources you quote or discuss, but all of those. Also, there should be only one list of references, which enables readers to find all kinds of sources in one alphabetized location.

2.7 In your references, list multiple works by the same author in date order from earliest to most recent. Repeat the author’s name for each entry rather than use a dash. If several entries by an author fall in the same year, date them as (2009a), (2009b) etc. in the list of references and cite them as (Author 2009b: page) in the text.

2.8 We prefer first names rather than initials, unless the individual is known by initials: Williams, C. K.

2.9 When the family name normally comes first, alphabetize without a comma: in the list of references, Ai Weiwei would appear as Ai Weiwei, not Ai, Weiwei.

2.10 Cite the edition or translation from which you quote. If you want to indicate the original publication date, add it in square brackets in the list of references like this:

Author (2002 [1954]) Title, city: publisher.

2.11 Use this two-date form in the citation in the text only when you have good reason (Author 2002 [1954]: page), but normally cite (Author 2002: page). The single date is enough to guide readers to the full publication details.

2.12 When you quote several passages from the same source in close proximity, and you haven’t mentioned any other author or work in the context, abbreviate citations to (year: page) or simply (page). The goal is clarity. If there could be confusion about what source you’re quoting, cite enough of (Author year: page) to make it clear.

2.13 e-books don’t have page numbers (they have ‘locations’). In your text, cite the source of an e-book quotation by using the e-book’s subsections (e.g., Author year: chapter 3, section 2, paragraph 8), similar to citing the Bible (Habakkuk 2:12) or Shakespeare (Antony and Cleopatra 5.2.2--8). See para 3.8 for e-book entries in the list of references.

3. Required formats for publication details in the list of references

3.1 Book with multiple authors

Kay, John, Colin Mayer and David Thompson (1986) Privatization and Regulation, Oxford: Clarendon Press.

NB: In your text when citing works with three or more authors, use et al. (Kay et al. 1986: 89), but in the list of references include all authors. Only the lead author’s name is in reverse order.

3.2 Article in edited volume

Harvie, Jen (2009a) ‘Agency and complicity in “A special civic room”: London’s Tate Modern Turbine Hall’, in D. J. Hopkins, Shelley Orr and Kim Solga (eds) Performance in the City, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 204--21.

Kreile, Michael (1992) ‘The political economy of the new Germany’, in Paul B. Strares (ed.) The New Germany and the New Europe, Washington DC: Brookings Institution, pp. 55--92.

NB: Avoid ampersands (&). Properly space initials. In abbreviations don’t use a full point if the last letter of the word remains (as in Dr, St, Mr, edn and eds, but an editor singular gets a full point: ed.).

3.3 Article in a journal

Mazer, Sharon (2011) ‘You talkin’ to me?: Eavesdropping on the conversation at Te Matatini Māori performing arts festival’, Performance Research 16(2): 44--9.

Streeck, Wolfgang, and Philippe C. Schmitter (1991) ‘From corporatism to transnational pluralism: Organised interests in the single European market’, Politics and Society 19: 133--64.

NB: Spell titles as the publisher spells them. For book titles use capitalization throughout, but for book subtitles and titles of articles, capitalize only the first word.

3.4 Edited text

Roberts, Michael, ed. (1936) The Faber Book of Modern Verse, London: Faber and Faber.

Smith, Adam (1976 [1776]) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, eds R. H. Campbell, A. S. Skinner and W. B. Todd, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

3.5 Translated text

Calvino, Italo (1988) Six Memos for the Next Millennium, ed. Esther Calvino, trans. Patrick Creagh, New York: Vintage.

Jaspers, Karl (1964) General Psychopathology, 7th edn, trans. J. Hoenig and Marion W. Hamilton, Chicago: University of Chicago Press..

3.6 Newspaper item

Barber, Lynn (1993) ‘The towering bureaucracy’, Financial Times, p. 12, 21 June.

3.7 Internet references

Larner, Christina J. (1982) The Thinking Peasant, Lecture 3: ‘Natural and unnatural methods of witchcraft control’, Gifford Lectures Online,, accessed 2 October 2012.

Mabillard, Amanda (2004) ‘Shakespeare in Print’, Shakespeare Online, 20 Aug,, accessed 2 October 2012.

Shakespeare Online (2001), 5 September, accessed 25 May 2011.

NB: To help readers find sources on the web, include as much normal bibliographic information as possible; URLs alone are unreliable.

3.8 e-book references

Gladwell, Malcomb (2008) Outliers: The story of success, Kindle DX,

Brill, Pamela (2004) The Winner’s Way, Adobe Digital Editions, DOI: 10.1036/007142363X.

NB: Please identify an e-book’s format, which is necessary for locating quotations in the absence of page numbers. If a journal or other online source lists a digital object identifier (DOI), please include it; when appended to in the address bar of an Internet browser, the DOI will lead to the source, regardless of format.

4. Images and captions

4.1 Image specifications will be provided after the draft article has been accepted.

4.2 Normally send images separate from the article, not inserted in the text. Identify each transmitted image by the article’s author and short title and by the image’s correct number matching its placement.

4.3 Mark the general placement of images in the text between paragraphs like this: [{figure1}], [{figure2}] etc.

4.4 If you refer to images to your article, ordinarily cite them this way: (fig. 1), in lower case, using no other punctuation inside the parentheses.

4.5 Include appropriate elements in the caption:

Figure 1. Gruppo Incroyable on the ziggurat of Sant’Ivo alla Sapienza, Rome, 25 May 1987. L--R: Pia Fametti, Franco deArcangelis, William Marsh (director) and Jane Marsh. Photo Bruno Santini, courtesy of the Borromini Archive.

4.6 If you do not tie images to the text precisely, there’s no need to include (fig. 1) etc. in the text, and you can omit ‘Figure 1.’ etc. from the captions. But if one image is so tied, all the images require notation.

5. Quotations

5.1 Use single quotation marks for quotes in the main text or notes. Use double quotation marks only for quotes within quotes.

5.2 A quotation that is forty words or longer should be set as an extract, block-indented with space above and below, using no quotation marks. A quote within an extract uses single quotation marks.

5.3 Epigraphs should be block-indented without quotation marks, followed on the next line by the author’s full name and a citation to the source in the list of references:

We shouldn’t teach [modern poems] directly but use them in courses about other things.
Galway Kinnell (1978: 15)

5.4 Quotation marks normally go ‘inside the punctuation’, (not ‘outside the punctuation,’). But a complete sentence, quoted as if direct address, merits quotation marks outside its own punctuation, as when Soskice says, ‘This dichotomy will not stand.’

5.5 In the running text a quote’s citation also goes inside the punctuation: ‘and so it goes’ (Author date: page). But in an extract

the citation goes outside the final punctuation. (Author date: page)

5.6 Do not use an ellipsis at the beginning or end of a quotation unless there’s good reason: write ‘To be, or not to be’, not ‘To be, or not to be…’, and not ‘…thus concludes the reading’.

5.7 For ellipses within quotations, use three points (the ellipsis key, not typing each point) to leave out material from within a single sentence. Use four points when leaving out material that contains at least one full point (period). The fourth point represents those elided full points.

5.8 When quoting, there is normally no need to put square brackets around an ellipsis […], because in nearly all cases readers will know that the ellipsis symbol is not in the original.

5.9 If you add emphasis to quoted material, normally with italics, you must declare it: (Author date: page, my emphasis). If the emphasis is in the original, you do not need to comment unless you think comment is significant: (Author date: page, emphasis in original).

NB: Do not say ‘emphasis added’ or ‘author’s emphasis’, which could refer to either you or the author you’re quoting.

6. Numbers

6.1 Spell out numbers below 100. But spell any number that begins a sentence. Use figures for units of measure (20 cm, 20 light-years, 20 ins, 20 degrees Celsius, the 20-day limit, but twenty days, twenty people), for time (a 7 a.m. start), for ages (Harold Simonson, 84, or the 15-year-old or the 92-year-old dancer). Combine figures and words in percentages, 29 per cent, and use the symbol, 29%, only in equations or graphs.

6.2 In sequences of numbers, use the fewest figures possible: 1,222--3, 100--4 or 7--11. But show the teens, as in 10--17 or 1,212--13. This rule holds for spans of years: 1987--2003, 1987--90, 1987--8 or 2000--9 but 1914--18. In a person’s biographical dates, we respect the birth and death rather than lay out a sequence: Rebecca Elson (1960--1999).

6.3 Write dates as 24 September 2004, without a comma, spelling out the month: 15 August, or on the 15th (not superscript ‘th’). Use all the numbers for the 1840s, the 1960s, with no apostrophes (not the 40s or the 60’s; abbreviate as the forties, the sixties). Be careful with sequences of ancient dates: c.80--72 BCE -- CE 110, or 42 BC--AD 4. Spell out centuries: twentieth century (not 20th century) and hyphenate the century when it’s an adjective: twelfth-century songs.

7. Spelling

7.1 Spelling should conform to the Concise Oxford Dictionary (use the first boldface headword in an entry) and should follow the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors.

7.2 Please note the longstanding Oxford spellings (they are not Americanisms) of ‘-ize’ words like realize, characterize, aggrandize, civilization etc. but devise, exercise, advertise, enfranchise etc. For lists, see

7.3 Italicize non-English words, as in the Concise Oxford. Examples include mise-en-scène, vís-à-vís, élan and à la. When a non-English term like praxis, poesis or powhiri is used repeatedly, you may opt to put it in roman after the first, defining appearance.

7.4 We prefer to acknowledge each person in two-party possessives:

Deleuze’s and Guattari’s observation, rather than Deleuze and Guattari’s observation

8. Treatment of titles and names

8.1 Capitalize and use italics (always represented by underlined roman), with no quotation marks: for titles of books, journals, newspapers, plays, films, dance and theatre works, installations, long poems, paintings, long-established exhibitions and ships. For example, Guernica, Documenta XIII (which could be capitalized although its organizers tend to lowercase the ‘d’, dokumenta XIII), Knife in the Water.

8.2 Capitalize and use roman font, with quotation marks: for conference and exhibition titles, titles of short poems, short stories, scripts, newspaper headlines. For example, the 2010 PSi conference ‘Performing Publics’ in Toronto, or Ellen Bell’s ‘Camera Obscura & Other Stories’ at the Gallery in Redchurch Street.

8.3 Capitalize and use roman font, without quotation marks: for the names of dance and other performing companies, the names of university or government departments, place names, the West, the Orient, Western medicine, Eastern philosophy. Examples: the National Theatre, Forced Entertainment, Socìetas Raffaello Sanzio, Southern California.

8.4 Do not capitalize non-names: southern Africa (but South Africa).

9. Hyphens, en dashes and em dashes

9.1 Use hyphens in terms like ‘third-party politics’, ‘socio-economic theory’, ‘blue-green algae’, ‘art-making’ and ‘up-to-the-minute fashion’.

9.2 En dashes create inclusive ranges of numbers, 17--43, and link names that are normally separate: Berlin--Rome axis, the Wilson--Musgrave collaboration. Because there is no en dash on the keyboard, please indicate the en dash with two hyphens with no spaces on either side.

9.3 Em dashes (twice the length of en dashes) are versatile -- used before and after amplifying material, for example -- and are indicated for the typesetter by a pair of hyphens with one space on each side.

9.4 Some word-processing programs create various dashes, unlike the identical pair in the preceding note. For PR manuscripts, do not rely on such automatic dashes. Instead, please code the em dash for the typesetter by using the two hyphens -- with a space before and after.

10. Gender, ethnicity and culturally specific references

10.1 We do not use masculine pronouns as generic for the human race. Avoid the form ‘s/he’ and, where possible, ‘he or she’. Use gender-neutral nouns when you can. Unless you specify otherwise, we will edit appropriately.

10.2 Please do not assume readers worldwide will understand your jargon, abbreviations or local experience. For example, in its first appearance in an article, AHRC should be the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Goldsmiths should be Goldsmiths University of London (no comma, no apostrophe), and MOMA should be New York’s Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). Subsequent occurrences can use the local familiar. The editors are particularly concerned that PR not promote an exclusively British view or agenda.

11. Antecedence

Readers have to struggle when antecedence is ambiguous. Please take particular care with pronouns, relative clauses and multiple subjects and objects in sentences with multiple verbs.

12. Missed chances for clarity

12.1 The distinction between ‘that’ and ‘which’ is useful in saying what you mean.

A. ‘The work that stood out made the difference.’
B. ‘The work, which stood out, made the difference.’

Sentence A defines the sort of work it was: one vying for attention. Sentence B goes beyond definition: you’re free to discuss standing-out without implying that this was one of the work’s defining qualities. The two sentences have significantly different meanings.

12.2 ‘The work which stood out made the difference’ substitutes ‘which’ for ‘that’ and muddles an opportunity to represent something clearly.

12.3 A ‘that’ clause is not set apart by commas (it belongs to the definition); a ‘which’ clause is set apart (it moves on into non-defining territory).

13. Artist Pages

13.1 Pages in any graphic form made to suit page size 215 mm x 280mm are acceptable.

13.2 A print-resolution mono pdf is the ideal.

13.3 A full-page bleed is 215 mm x 280mm, plus 3 mm bleed all round.

13.4 For initial consideration please send a mock-up. Please include any special requirements or requests, for instance preferred placement in the journal, whether the work should begin on a left- or right-hand page or exclude page numbers etc.

13.5 Finalizing artist pages is often an individualized process that depends on discussion between editor and artist. Responsibility for generating finished artwork remains with the artist, but our designer is available to advise or to help artists ensure their work conforms to the publisher’s and printer’s specifications.